تئوری سیستمی خلاقیت در سازمان

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانشیار دانشگاه امام حسین (ع)sadmansoor@gmail.com

چکیده

زمینه: با وجود ضرورت روزافزون خلاقیت در حیات فردی و اجتماعی بشر، هنوز هم افراد به‌ویژه مدیران درک و فهم درستی از مفهوم پیچیده و مبهم خلاقیت ندارند و در نتیجه در مدیریت کردن استعداد خلاقیت با چالش بنیادین مواجه می‌شوند و عموماً نادانسته خلاقیت را محدود می‌کنند. زیرا، نه‌تنها خلاقیت در زمرة پیچیده‌ترین رفتارهای انسانی قرار دارد، بلکه تحقیقات انجام‌شده در زمینه مفهوم خلاقیت به‌طور کلی پراکنده، ناسازگار و غیر منسجم است و بر این اساس، این تحقیقات پیشنهادهای کاربردی واضح و مشخصی برای مدیریت خلاقیت ارائه نمی‌کنند.
هدف: تحقیق حاضر با هدف وحدت بخشیدن به ادبیات پراکنده و ناسازگار خلاقیت در عرصه سازمان در قالب یک تئوری در راستای مدیریت مفهوم پیچیده و مبهم خلاقیت، انجام شده است.
روش: با رویکردی سیستمی- اکتشافی و بهره‌گیری از روش‌های فراتحلیل و تحلیل محتوا، 490 تحقیق مطالعه و بررسی شد که طی سال‌های 1950 تا 2012 میلادی در مورد خلاقیت انجام شده‌اند.
یافته‌ها: پردازش داده‌های استخراج‌شده از تحقیقات، به اکتشاف تئوری سیستمی خلاقیت منجر شد. این تئوری بر محور سلسله مراتبی از متغیرها شامل ابعاد، عوامل، مؤلفه‌ها، شاخص‌ها و همچنین روابط حاکم بر آن‌ها به ادبیات پراکنده، نامنسجم و ناسازگار خلاقیت وحدت بخشید و بیان‌گر آن است که خلاقیت پدیده‌ای سیستمی است که متشکل از ابعاد سه‌گانه چگونگی، چیستی و چرایی است. چگونگی خلاقیت بیان‌گر ورودی‌های سیستم خلاقیت یا عوامل مؤثر بر خلاقیت است که عبارت‌اند از چهار عاملِ فردی، شغلی، گروهی و سازمانی. چیستی خلاقیت به فرایند سیستم خلاقیت اشاره دارد و شامل عوامل سه‌گانه خلاقیت فردی، خلاقیت گروهی و خلاقیت سازمانی است. چرایی خلاقیت بیان‌گر اهمیت و ضرورت است یا آنچه از سیستم خلاقیت حاصل می‌شود که عبارت‌اند از عوامل دوگانة خروجی و پیامد.
نتیجه‌گیری: بر اساس سطوح چندگانه تئوری سیستمی خلاقیت (ابعاد، عوامل، مؤلفه‌ها و شاخص‌ها) و روابط حاکم بر آن‌ها، می‌توان در عرصة سازمان خلاقیت را مدیریت کرد. به این‌ صورت که این تئوری به افراد و به خصوص مدیران کمک می‌کند تا با رویکردی سیستمی از سطح ابعاد، عوامل، مؤلفه‌ها تا شاخص‌ها درک کنند که خلاقیت چیست؟ چرا به آن نیاز دارند و چگونه می‌توانند آن را ارتقاء دهند؟

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

System Theory of Creativity in the Organization

نویسنده [English]

  • Mansour Sadeghi Mal Amiri
چکیده [English]

Background: In spite of the increasing importance and necessity of paying attention to the stance of creativity in today’s world in terms of individual and collective life of human, the concept is yet ignored among the managers. The concept of creativity is among the most complex human behaviors and most researches in the field of creativity are mostly scattered, inconsistent and incoherent on the subject. This research tried to offer a clear application to manage creativity.
Objective: This study aimed to unite the scattered and inconsistent literature on creativity in the form of a theory.
Method: Exploratory-qualitative approach, meta-analysis, and content analysis methods were employed in this research. Some 490 researches which were conducted during 1950 to 2012 on creativity were studied.
Results: Processing data derived from research led to the discovery of the systems theory of creativity. This theory is based on hierarchy of variables including size, elements, components and indicators. Creativity and innovation phenomenon indicates that the system is composed of multiple dimensions. Creativity and innovation system inputs or factors affect creativity that includes four factors: personal, departmental, professional, and organizational. What is Creativity?  Creativity refers to the system and consists of three individual creativity, group creativity and organizational creativity. Why creativity reflects the importance and necessity, or what the result will be the creation of systems that include output and outcome factors.
Conclusion:  Based on the multiple levels of creativity (dimensions, factors, components and indicators) as well as the relations governing them, creativity can be managed at organizations.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Creativity
  • what is creativity
  • why creativity
  • creativity systemic theory
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