الگوی کاربردی پرورش خلاقیّت کودکان از طریق موسیقی توسط معلّمان غیرمتخصّص در مدارس ابتدایی (با اتّکا به تجارب آموزشی و نوآوری های موسیقایی جان کیج )

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد پژوهش هنر، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه پژوهش و تاریخ هنر، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

چکیده

زمینه: نظر به اهمیّت خلاقیّت در توسعه جهانی و تأکیدبر پرورش آن در سنین کودکی و نقش هنر در شکوفایی آن ازیک سو و ابراز نگرانی ها مبنی بر «بحران خلاقیّت» و فقدان درک آن در مدارس، ازدیگرسو، لزوم ارائۀ راهکارهایی نو و کاربردی را در عصر حاضر ایجاب کرده است.
هدف: پژوهش حاضر درصدد طراحی الگوی موسیقایی کارآمد برای پرورش خلاقیّت دانش آموزان دبستانی با قابلیّت کاربست توسط معلّمان غیرمتخصّص ایرانی و اعتبارسنجی آن است.
روش: این پژوهش از سه مطالعه پی درپی استفاده کرده است. مطالعات پیمایشی اول و دوم، در راستای طراحی الگوی مدنظر، شامل سنجش قابلیّت اجرایی شیوه آموزشی هنرمندان در پرورش خلاقیّت با مفاهیم موسیقایی و تجارب آموزشی جان کیج، موسیقی دان و معلّم برجسته قرن بیستم، در دو مرحله پرسش نامه محقق ساخته به روش دلفی، مورد ارزیابی متخصّصین سه حوزه آموزش و پرورش، هنر و موسیقی، بود. در مطالعه آزمایشی سوم با هدف اعتبارسنجی الگوی مزبور، اجرای آن توسط یک معلّم غیرمتخصّص، بر روی گروهی از دانش آموزان دختر اول ابتدایی، به همراه پیش و پس آزمون فرم الف آزمون تصویری خلاقیّت تورنس اجرا شد.
یافته ها: یافته ها نشانگر پذیرش برخی از ابعاد الگوی آموزشی هنرمندان و راهبردهای آموزشی مبتنی بر تجارب جان کیج در قالب یک مجموعه راهبرد جهت اجرا در مدارس ایرانی بر اساس اجماع متخصّصان و همچنین نتایج مطالعه سوم نیز حاکی از وجود اختلاف معنادار میان گروه آزمایش دارای تجارب موسیقایی و کنترل در مؤلفه های خلاقیّت، سیالی، ابتکار، انعطاف و نمره کل خلاقیّت به جز نمره بسط بود.
نتیجه گیری: تحلیل ها نشانگر کارآمدی الگوی مذکور بر پرورش خلاقیّت کودکان دبستانی و کاربستش توسط معلّمان غیرمتخصّص در محیط آموزشی ایران می باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

An Applied Pattern for Developing Children's Creativity through Music by Non-Specialized Teachers in Primary Schools (Based on John Cage's Pedagogical Experiences and Musical Innovations)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zahra Akhoundi 1
  • Reza Afhami 2
1 M.A. of Art research, School of Art & Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Deparement of Art studies, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background: Considering the significance of creativity in global development, the emphasis on its development at an early age, and the role of art in its flourishing on the one hand and the concern about “the Creativity Crisis” and lack of understanding concerning creativity in schools on the other hand, necessitate innovative and applied solutions in the present age.
Objective: The present study aims to provide an applied pattern for promoting the creativity of elementary school students through music experiences with usability by Iranian non-specialized teachers and its validation.
Method: This research has been conducted in three studies. In order to design the intended pattern with the applicability by non-specialized teachers in elementary schools, first and second surveys include assessing the implementation of the artists’ educational practices in the creativity development with musical concepts and Cage’s pedagogical experiences, the prominent musician, teacher of the 20th century, which were evaluated by two rounds of a self-made Delphi questionnaire with concepts and pedagogical practices used to fostering creativity, and determined by experts in three areas of education, art, and music.
The third Experimental research, with the purpose of validating the discovered pattern, was conducted by a non-specialist teacher on a group of primary girl students, with a pre-post test of Torrance Creative Thinking Test (TTCT; figural version of form A).
Results: The findings indicate acceptance of some dimensions of the artist's educational model and Cage’s pedagogical experiences as a set of strategies for implementing in Iranian schools, according to experts and the third study also showed the significant difference between experimental and control group on creativity dimensions, fluidity, originality, flexibility, and the overall creativity score except expandability.
Conclusion: The analyzes indicate the effectiveness of the intended pattern on the creativity development of primary school children and its use by non-specialized teachers in the educational environment of Iran.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Creativity Development Pattern
  • Creativity Through Music Education
  • Fostering the Creativity of Primary School Children
  • John Cage
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دوره 7، شماره 4
بهار 1397
صفحه 33-70
  • تاریخ دریافت: 04 آذر 1396
  • تاریخ بازنگری: 23 اسفند 1396
  • تاریخ پذیرش: 10 خرداد 1397