آقا محمدی، جواد، شاه حسینی، سعید. (1396). مقایسه تأثیر میزان استفاده از ارتباطات بیواسطه و ارتباطات رسانه ای بر میزان تفکر خلاق دانشجویان کارشناسی علوم تربیتی دانشگاه اراک. فصلنامه علمی وپژوهشی ابتکار و خلاقیت در علوم انسانی، 5(4)، 121-140.
زنگنه، حسین؛ موسوی سید رقیه؛، مهدی بدلی. (1392). تأثیر استفاده از فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات بر پرورش تفکر خلاق، فصلنامه علمی و پژوهشی ابتکار و خلاقیت در علوم انسانی، 3(2)،40 -59.
سراجی، فرهاد و عطاران، محمد. (1390). یادگیری الکترونیکی: مبانی، طراحی، اجرا و ارزشیابی. همدان: دانشگاه بو علی سینا.
قربان دردی نژاد، فرهاد؛ خزایی، سعید؛ (1393). بررسی تأثیر میدان بازی مجازی بر خلاقیت مشارکتی و پیشرفت یادگیری فراگیران در پودمان ترکیبی آموزش واژگان زبان انگلیسی فصلنامه علمی و پژوهشی ابتکار و خلاقیت در علوم انسانی، 4(3)، 1-31 .
محسنیان راد، مهدی( 1393). ارتباطات انسانی (چاپ دوم). تهران: انتشارات سمت.
AbuSeileek, A., & Abualsha’r, A. (2014). Using peer computer-mediated corrective feedback to support EFL learners’ writing. Language Learning & Technology, 18(1), 76-95.
Admiraal, W., Louws, M., Lockhorst, D., Paas, T., Buynsters, M., Cviko, A., Post, L. (2017). Teachers in school-based technology innovations: A typology of their beliefs on teaching and technology. Computers & Education, 114, 57-68.
Achilles, C. M., & Hoover, S. P. (1996). Transforming administrative praxis: The potential of problem-based learning (PBL) as a school-improvement vehicle for middle and high schools. Columbia University, NY: ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED397471.
Al Ajmi, A. A. S., & Ali, H. I. H. (2014). Collaborative Writing in Group Assignments in an EFL/ESL Classroom. English Linguistics Research, 3(2), p1.
Alghasab, M., & Handley, Z. (2017). Capturing (non-) collaboration in wiki-mediated collaborative writing activities: the need to examine discussion posts and editing acts in tandem. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 1-28.
Almerich, G., Orellana, N., Suárez-Rodríguez, J., & Díaz-García, I. (2016). Teachers’ information and communication technology competences: A structural approach. Computers & Education, 100, 110-125.
Aloraini, S. (2012). The impact of using multimedia on students’ academic achievement in the College of Education at King Saud University. Journal of King Saud University-Languages and Translation, 24(2), 75-82.
Alwi, N. A. N. M., Adams, R., & Newton, J. (2012). Writing to learn via text chat: Task implementation and focus on form. Journal of second language writing, 21(1), 23-39.
Aminloo, M. S. (2013). The effect of collaborative writing on EFL learners writing ability at elementary level. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 4, 801-806.
Amiryousefi, M. (2016). The differential effects of two types of task repetition on the complexity, accuracy, and fluency in computer-mediated L2 written production: a focus on computer anxiety. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 29(5), 1050-1066.
Andrews, K. L. Z. (2007). The Effects of Implicit and Explicit Instruction on Simple and Complex Grammatical Structures for Adult English Language Learners. TESL-EJ, 11(2), n2.
Bagheri, E., Roohani, A., & Ansari, D. N. (2012). Effect of CALL-based and non-CALL based methods of teaching on L2 vocabulary learning. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 3(4), 744-752.
Barani, G. (2012). The impact of computer assisted language learning (CALL) on vocabulary achievement of Iranian university students EFL learners. International Journal of Basic Sciences & Applied Research, 2(5), 531-537.
Barbeiro, L. F. (2011). What happens when I write? Pupils’ writing about writing. Reading and Writing, 24(7), 813-834.
Bataineh, R. F., & Hani, N. A. B. (2011). The effect of a call program on jordanian sixth-grand student’ achivment. Teaching English with Technology, 11(3), 3-24.
Bernard, R. M., & Lundgren-Cayrol, K. (2001). Computer conferencing: An environment for collaborative project-based learning in distance education. Educational Research and Evaluation, 7(2-3), 241-261.
Biria, R., & Jafari, S. (2013). The impact of collaborative writing on the writing fluency of Iranian EFL learners. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 4(1), 164-175.
Blake, R. (2000). Computer mediated communication: A window on L2 Spanish interlanguage. Language Learning & Technology, 4(1), 120-136.
Bower, J., & Kawaguchi, S. (2011). Negotiation of meaning and corrective feedback in Japanese/English eTandem. Language Learning & Technology, 15(1), 41-71.
Byrnes, H., & Manchón, R. M. (2014). Task-based language learning–Insights from and for L2 writing (Vol. 7): John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Carter, R., & McCarthy, M. (2004). Talking, creating: interactional language, creativity, and context. Applied Linguistics, 25(1), 62-88.
Challob, A. a. I., Bakar, N. A., & Latif, H. (2016). Collaborative Blended Learning Writing Environment: Effects on EFL Students’ Writing Apprehension and Writing Performance. English Language Teaching, 9(6), 229.
Chao, Y.-C. J., & Lo, H.-C. (2011). Students' perceptions of Wiki-based collaborative writing for learners of English as a foreign language. Interactive Learning Environments, 19(4), 395-411.
Chien, Y.-C. (2011). Effects of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) instruction on the acquisition of passive grammatical forms by post-secondary English as a second language (ESL) students. University of Central Florida Orlando, Florida.
Choi, J. W.-C. (2008). The role of online collaboration in promoting ESL writing. English Language Teaching, 1(1), 34-49.
Chu, S. K. W., Tse, S. K., & Chow, K. (2011). Using collaborative teaching and inquiry project-based learning to help primary school students develop information literacy and information skills. Library & Information Science Research, 33(2), 132-143.
Deatz, R. C., & Campbell, C. H. (2001). Application of cognitive principles in distributed computer-based training. Retrieved from
Ellis, R., Loewen, S., & Basturkmen, H. (2006). Disentangling focus on form. A response to Sheen and O'Neill (2005). Applied linguistics, 27(1), 135-141.
Elola, I., & Oskoz, A. (2010). Collaborative writing: Fostering foreign language and writing conventions development. Language Learning & Technology, 14(3), 51-71.
Elola, I., & Oskoz, A. (2017). Writing with 21st century social tools in the L2 classroom: New literacies, genres, and writing practices. Journal of Second Language Writing.
Fernández-García, M., & Arbelaiz, A. M. (2003). Learners’ interactions: A comparison of oral and computer-assisted written conversations. ReCALL, 15(01), 113-136.
Fischer, F., & Mandl, H. (2005). Knowledge convergence in computer-supported collaborative learning: The role of external representation tools. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 14(3), 405-441.
Foster, P. (1998). A classroom perspective on the negotiation of meaning. Applied linguistics, 19(1), 1-23.
Foster, P., & Ohta, A. S. (2005). Negotiation for meaning and peer assistance in second language classrooms. Applied linguistics, 26(3), 402-430.
Gardner, H. (1991). The unschooled mind. New York: Basic Books.
Ghorbani, S., & Marzban, A. (2013). The effect of CALL on Iranian beginner EFL learners' grammar learning. Journal of Academic and Applied Studies, 3(7), 15-25.
Goldberg, A., Russell, M., & Cook, A. (2003). The effect of computers on student writing: A meta-analysis of studies from 1992 to 2002. The Journal of Technology, Learning and Assessment, 2(1).
Gonzales, A. H., & Nelson, L. M. (2005). Learner-centered instruction promotes student success. T.H.E Journal, 32(6), 10, 12, 14-15.
Grant, M. M., & Branch, R. M. (2005). Project-based learning in a middle school: Tracing abilities through the artifacts of learning. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 38(1), 65-98.
Gutiérrez, X. (2008). What does metalinguistic activity in learners' interaction during a collaborative L2 writing task look like? The Modern Language Journal, 92(4), 519-537.
Hayes, T., & Ge, X. (2008). The effects of computer-supported collaborative learning on students' writing performance. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 8th international conference on International conference for the learning sciences-Volume 1.
Hsieh, Y. C. (2017). A case study of the dynamics of scaffolding among ESL learners and online resources in collaborative learning. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 30(1-2), 115-132.
Hull, D. M., & Saxon, T. F. (2009). Negotiation of meaning and co-construction of knowledge: An experimental analysis of asynchronous online instruction. Computers & Education, 52(3), 624-639.
Ismael, A. a., Bakar, N. A., & Latif, H. (2016). Collaborative Blended Learning Writing Environment: Effects on EFL Students’ Writing Apprehension and Writing Performance. English Language Teaching, 9(6), 229-241.
Karami, M. (2013). Exploring effects of explicit vs. implicit teaching of collocations on the writing performance of Iranian EFL learners. International Journal of Language Learning and Applied Linguistics, 4(4), 197-215.
Kılıçkaya, F. (2015). Computer-based grammar instruction in an EFL context: improving the effectiveness of teaching adverbial clauses. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 28(4), 325-340.
Koh, J. H. L., Herring,S. C. & Hew, K. F. (2010). Project-based learning and student knowledge construction during asynchronous online discussion. The Internet and Higher Education, 13(4), 284-291.
Lai, C., & Zhao, Y. (2006). Noticing and text-based chat. Language Learning & Technology, 10(3), 102-120.
Lee, L. (2001). Online interaction: Negotiation of meaning and strategies used among learners of Spanish. ReCALL, 13(02), 232-244.
Lehtinen, E., Hakkarainen, K., Lipponen, L., Rahikainen, M., & Muukkonen, H. (1999). Computer supported collaborative learning: A review. The JHGI Giesbers reports on education, 10.
Li, M., & Kim, D. (2016). One wiki, two groups: Dynamic interactions across ESL collaborative writing tasks. Journal of second language writing, 31, 25-42.
Liao, H.-C. (2016). Enhancing the grammatical accuracy of EFL writing by using an AWE-assisted process approach. System, 62, 77-92.
Lin, O. P., & Maarof, N. (2013). Collaborative writing in summary writing: Student perceptions and problems. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 90, 599-606.
Lowry, P. B., Curtis, A., & Lowry, M. R. (2004). Building a taxonomy and nomenclature of collaborative writing to improve interdisciplinary research and practice. Journal of Business Communication, 41(1), 66-99.
Lu, X. (2010). Automatic analysis of syntactic complexity in second language writing. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 15(4), 474-496.
Lucas, E. M., Oliveira, T. C., Farias, K., & Alencar, P. S. (2017). CollabRDL: A Language to Coordinate Collaborative Reuse. Journal of Systems and Software.
Lyster, R. (2015). Using form-focused tasks to integrate language across the immersion curriculum. System, 54, 4-13.
McGrath, D. (2004). Strengthening collaborative work. Learning and Leading with Technology, 31(5), 30-33.
Manchon, R. M. (2011). Writing to learn the language: Issues in theory and research. Learning-to-write and writing-to-learn in an additional language, 61-84.
Marzban, A., & Mokhberi, M. (2012). The effect of focus on form instruction on intermediate EFL learners’ grammar learning in task-based language teaching. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 46, 5340-5344.
Mayo, M. d. P. G., & Ibarrola, A. L. (2015). Do children negotiate for meaning in task-based interaction? Evidence from CLIL and EFL settings. System, 54, 40-54.
Mayer, R. (2003). The promise of multimedia learning: using the same instructional design methods across different media. Learning and instruction, 13(2), 125-139.
Mohammadi, Z. (2017). Task engagement: a potential criterion for quality assessment of language learning tasks. Asian-Pacific Journal of Second and Foreign Language Education, 2(1), 3
Naghdipour, B. (2016). English writing instruction in Iran: Implications for second language writing curriculum and pedagogy. Journal of second language writing, 32, 81-87.
Nairn, K., Cameron, J., Anakin, M., Juntrasook, A., Wass, R., Sligo, J., & Morrison, C. (2015). Negotiating the challenge of collaborative writing: Learning from one writing group's mutiny. Higher Education Research & Development, 34(3), 596-608.
Nakahama, Y., Tyler, A., & Lier, L. (2001). Negotiation of meaning in conversational and information gap activities: A comparative discourse analysis. TESOL quarterly, 35(3), 377-405.
Nassaji, H., & Tian, J. (2010). Collaborative and individual output tasks and their effects on learning English phrasal verbs. Language teaching research, 14(4), 397-419.
Nejad, S. G., & Keshavarzi, A. (2015). The Effect of Cooperative Learning on Reading Comprehension and Reading Anxiety of Pre-University Students. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Research, 2(8), 169-180.
Nguyen, L. V. (2008). Computer mediated communication and foreign language education: Pedagogical features. International journal of instructional technology and distance learning, 5(12), 23-44.
Nobar, A., & Ahangari, S. (2012). The impact of computer-assisted language learning on Iranian EFL learners’ task-based listening skill and motivation. Journal of Academic and Applied Studies, 2(1), 39-61.
Oliver, R. (2000). Age differences in negotiation and feedback in classroom and pairwork. Language learning, 50(1), 119-151.
Oliver, R. (2002). The patterns of negotiation for meaning in child interactions. The Modern Language Journal, 86(1), 97-111.
Ortega, L. (2007). Meaningful L2 practice in foreign language classrooms: A cognitive-interactionist SLA perspective. Practice in a second language: Perspectives from applied linguistics and cognitive psychology, 180-207.
Orvis, K. L. (2008). Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning: Best Practices and Principles for Instructors: Best Practices and Principles for Instructors: IGI Global.
Orvis, K. L., & Lassiter, A. L. (2006). Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning. Teaching and learning with virtual teams, 158.
Pardo-Ballester, C., & Cabello, A. C. (2016). L2 Collaborative E-writing. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 228, 601-607.
Pica, T. (1994). Research on Negotiation: What Does It Reveal About Second‐Language Learning Conditions, Processes, and Outcomes? Language learning, 44(3), 493-527.
Pilotti, M., & Chodorow, M. (2009). Error detection/correction in collaborative writing. Reading and Writing, 22(3), 245-260.
Poole, A. (2005). The kinds of forms learners attend to during focus on form instruction: A description of an advanced ESL writing class. Asian EFL Journal, 7(3), 58-92.
Pourasghar, H., Abdolmanafi, S. J., & -Ronaki. (2015). Hypermedia and its Effect on EFL Learners’ Pronunciation Accuracy. International Journal of Educational Investigations, 2(7), 169-180.
Rabiee, A., Nazarian, Z., & Gharibshaeyan, R. (2013). An explanation for internet use obstacles concerning e-learning in Iran. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 14(3), 361-376.
Rahimpour, M., & Salimi, A. (2010). The impact of explicit instruction on foreign language learners’ performance. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2(2), 1740-1746.
Rajabi, P., & Dezhkam, E. (2014). The Effect of Explicit Grammar Instruction on Improving Writing Accuracy of Iranian EFL Learners. Journal of ELT and Applied Linguistics (JELTAL), 2(1).
Rezaei, S. (2011). Corrective feedback in task-based grammar instruction. Saarbrücken, Germany: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing.
Roblyer, M. D., & Wiencke, W. R. (2003). Design and use of a rubric to assess and encourage interactive qualities in distance courses. The American journal of distance education, 17(2), 77-98.
Rose, K. R. (2005). On the effects of instruction in second language pragmatics. System, 33(3), 385-399.
Sadeghi, K., & Dousti, M. (2014). The effect of length of exposure to computer-based vocabulary activities on young Iranian EFL learners' vocabulary gain. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 4(8), 1692.
Sadeghi, K., & Khezrlou, S. (2015). Language Learning Beyond the Classroom, David Nunan and Jack C. Richards. New York and Oxford: Routledge. Iranian Journal of Language Teaching Research, 3(2), 119-121.
Salehi, H. (2016). Impact of Explicit Vocabulary Instruction on Writing Achievement of Upper-Intermediate EFL Learners. pdf. International Education Studies.
Salimi, A., Bonyadi, A., & Asghari, A. (2014). The effect of focus on form on EFL learners' written task accuracy across different proficiency levels. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 4(4), 829.
Selwyn, N. (2016). Education and technology: Key issues and debates: Bloomsbury Publishing.
Shehadeh, A. (2011). Effects and student perceptions of collaborative writing in L2. Journal of second language writing, 20(4), 286-305.
Stahl, G., Koschmann, T., & Suthers, D. (2006). Computer-supported collaborative learning: An historical perspective. Cambridge handbook of the learning sciences, 2006, 409-426.
Stockwell, G. (2010). Effects of multimodality in computer-mediated communication tasks. Task-based language learning and teaching with technology, 83-104.
Storch, N. (2005). Collaborative writing: Product, process, and students’ reflections. Journal of second language writing, 14(3), 153-173.
Storch, N. (2008). Metatalk in a pair work activity: Level of engagement and implications for language development. Language awareness, 17(2), 95-114.
Storch, N. (2013). Collaborative writing in L2 classrooms (Vol. 31): Multilingual matters.
Strijbos, J.-W., & Fischer, F. (2007). Methodological challenges for collaborative learning research. Learning and Instruction, 17(4), 389-393.
Thorne, & Lantolf, J. (2006). Sociocultural theory and the genesis of second language development: Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Tudini, V. (2013). Form-focused social repertoires in an online language learning partnership. Journal of pragmatics, 50(1), 187-202.
van der Zwaard, R., & Bannink, A. (2014). Video call or chat? Negotiation of meaning and issues of face in telecollaboration. System, 44, 137-148.
VanPatten, B., Williams, J., Rott, S., & Overstreet, M. (2004). Form-meaning connections in second language acquisition: Routledge.
Warschauer, M. (2011). Emerging technologies for autonomous language learning. Reading.
Wilske, S. (2015). Form and meaning in dialog-based computer-assisted language learning. (Doktors der Philosophie), Universit ¨at d