عنوان مقاله [English]
Goals: This study is an investigation of innovative technology in writing skill. To this end, the potential of a designed innovative e-collaborative writing website with unique features in creating opportunities in improving writing ability, fostering creativity in managing discourse through negotiation of form (NOF) and negotiation of meaning (NOM) in comparison with collaborative writing of Iranian learners .
Method: 60 Iranian intermediate EFL learners' writing performances in two writing modalities were analyzed with respect to their potential in increasing writing achievement scores and creating a medium for NOM and NOF were analyzed. Data were collected through pretest/posttest measures, conversation and log analysis of form and meaning negotiations in collaborative and e-collaborative writing and open coding of student reflective essays.
Results: Multivariate analysis of co-variance and chi-square analysis indicated that learners had higher writing scores and negotiation of meaning and form in e-collaborative
آقا محمدی، جواد، شاه حسینی، سعید. (1396). مقایسه تأثیر میزان استفاده از ارتباطات بیواسطه و ارتباطات رسانه ای بر میزان تفکر خلاق دانشجویان کارشناسی علوم تربیتی دانشگاه اراک. فصلنامه علمی وپژوهشی ابتکار و خلاقیت در علوم انسانی، 5(4)، 121-140.
زنگنه، حسین؛ موسوی سید رقیه؛، مهدی بدلی. (1392). تأثیر استفاده از فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات بر پرورش تفکر خلاق، فصلنامه علمی و پژوهشی ابتکار و خلاقیت در علوم انسانی، 3(2)،40 -59.
سراجی، فرهاد و عطاران، محمد. (1390). یادگیری الکترونیکی: مبانی، طراحی، اجرا و ارزشیابی. همدان: دانشگاه بو علی سینا.
قربان دردی نژاد، فرهاد؛ خزایی، سعید؛ (1393). بررسی تأثیر میدان بازی مجازی بر خلاقیت مشارکتی و پیشرفت یادگیری فراگیران در پودمان ترکیبی آموزش واژگان زبان انگلیسی فصلنامه علمی و پژوهشی ابتکار و خلاقیت در علوم انسانی، 4(3)، 1-31 .
محسنیان راد، مهدی( 1393). ارتباطات انسانی (چاپ دوم). تهران: انتشارات سمت.
AbuSeileek, A., & Abualsha’r, A. (2014). Using peer computer-mediated corrective feedback to support EFL learners’ writing. Language Learning & Technology, 18(1), 76-95.
Admiraal, W., Louws, M., Lockhorst, D., Paas, T., Buynsters, M., Cviko, A., Post, L. (2017). Teachers in school-based technology innovations: A typology of their beliefs on teaching and technology. Computers & Education, 114, 57-68.
Achilles, C. M., & Hoover, S. P. (1996). Transforming administrative praxis: The potential of problem-based learning (PBL) as a school-improvement vehicle for middle and high schools. Columbia University, NY: ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED397471.
Al Ajmi, A. A. S., & Ali, H. I. H. (2014). Collaborative Writing in Group Assignments in an EFL/ESL Classroom. English Linguistics Research, 3(2), p1.
Alghasab, M., & Handley, Z. (2017). Capturing (non-) collaboration in wiki-mediated collaborative writing activities: the need to examine discussion posts and editing acts in tandem. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 1-28.
Almerich, G., Orellana, N., Suárez-Rodríguez, J., & Díaz-García, I. (2016). Teachers’ information and communication technology competences: A structural approach. Computers & Education, 100, 110-125.
Aloraini, S. (2012). The impact of using multimedia on students’ academic achievement in the College of Education at King Saud University. Journal of King Saud University-Languages and Translation, 24(2), 75-82.
Alwi, N. A. N. M., Adams, R., & Newton, J. (2012). Writing to learn via text chat: Task implementation and focus on form. Journal of second language writing, 21(1), 23-39.
Aminloo, M. S. (2013). The effect of collaborative writing on EFL learners writing ability at elementary level. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 4, 801-806.
Amiryousefi, M. (2016). The differential effects of two types of task repetition on the complexity, accuracy, and fluency in computer-mediated L2 written production: a focus on computer anxiety. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 29(5), 1050-1066.
Andrews, K. L. Z. (2007). The Effects of Implicit and Explicit Instruction on Simple and Complex Grammatical Structures for Adult English Language Learners. TESL-EJ, 11(2), n2.
Bagheri, E., Roohani, A., & Ansari, D. N. (2012). Effect of CALL-based and non-CALL based methods of teaching on L2 vocabulary learning. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 3(4), 744-752.
Barani, G. (2012). The impact of computer assisted language learning (CALL) on vocabulary achievement of Iranian university students EFL learners. International Journal of Basic Sciences & Applied Research, 2(5), 531-537.
Barbeiro, L. F. (2011). What happens when I write? Pupils’ writing about writing. Reading and Writing, 24(7), 813-834.
Bataineh, R. F., & Hani, N. A. B. (2011). The effect of a call program on jordanian sixth-grand student’ achivment. Teaching English with Technology, 11(3), 3-24.
Bernard, R. M., & Lundgren-Cayrol, K. (2001). Computer conferencing: An environment for collaborative project-based learning in distance education. Educational Research and Evaluation, 7(2-3), 241-261.
Biria, R., & Jafari, S. (2013). The impact of collaborative writing on the writing fluency of Iranian EFL learners. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 4(1), 164-175.
Blake, R. (2000). Computer mediated communication: A window on L2 Spanish interlanguage. Language Learning & Technology, 4(1), 120-136.
Bower, J., & Kawaguchi, S. (2011). Negotiation of meaning and corrective feedback in Japanese/English eTandem. Language Learning & Technology, 15(1), 41-71.
Byrnes, H., & Manchón, R. M. (2014). Task-based language learning–Insights from and for L2 writing (Vol. 7): John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Carter, R., & McCarthy, M. (2004). Talking, creating: interactional language, creativity, and context. Applied Linguistics, 25(1), 62-88.
Challob, A. a. I., Bakar, N. A., & Latif, H. (2016). Collaborative Blended Learning Writing Environment: Effects on EFL Students’ Writing Apprehension and Writing Performance. English Language Teaching, 9(6), 229.
Chao, Y.-C. J., & Lo, H.-C. (2011). Students' perceptions of Wiki-based collaborative writing for learners of English as a foreign language. Interactive Learning Environments, 19(4), 395-411.
Chien, Y.-C. (2011). Effects of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) instruction on the acquisition of passive grammatical forms by post-secondary English as a second language (ESL) students. University of Central Florida Orlando, Florida.
Choi, J. W.-C. (2008). The role of online collaboration in promoting ESL writing. English Language Teaching, 1(1), 34-49.
Deatz, R. C., & Campbell, C. H. (2001). Application of cognitive principles in distributed computer-based training. Retrieved from
Ellis, R., Loewen, S., & Basturkmen, H. (2006). Disentangling focus on form. A response to Sheen and O'Neill (2005). Applied linguistics, 27(1), 135-141.
Elola, I., & Oskoz, A. (2010). Collaborative writing: Fostering foreign language and writing conventions development. Language Learning & Technology, 14(3), 51-71.
Elola, I., & Oskoz, A. (2017). Writing with 21st century social tools in the L2 classroom: New literacies, genres, and writing practices. Journal of Second Language Writing.
Fernández-García, M., & Arbelaiz, A. M. (2003). Learners’ interactions: A comparison of oral and computer-assisted written conversations. ReCALL, 15(01), 113-136.
Fischer, F., & Mandl, H. (2005). Knowledge convergence in computer-supported collaborative learning: The role of external representation tools. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 14(3), 405-441.
Foster, P. (1998). A classroom perspective on the negotiation of meaning. Applied linguistics, 19(1), 1-23.
Foster, P., & Ohta, A. S. (2005). Negotiation for meaning and peer assistance in second language classrooms. Applied linguistics, 26(3), 402-430.
Gardner, H. (1991). The unschooled mind. New York: Basic Books.
Ghorbani, S., & Marzban, A. (2013). The effect of CALL on Iranian beginner EFL learners' grammar learning. Journal of Academic and Applied Studies, 3(7), 15-25.
Goldberg, A., Russell, M., & Cook, A. (2003). The effect of computers on student writing: A meta-analysis of studies from 1992 to 2002. The Journal of Technology, Learning and Assessment, 2(1).
Gonzales, A. H., & Nelson, L. M. (2005). Learner-centered instruction promotes student success. T.H.E Journal, 32(6), 10, 12, 14-15.
Grant, M. M., & Branch, R. M. (2005). Project-based learning in a middle school: Tracing abilities through the artifacts of learning. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 38(1), 65-98.
Gutiérrez, X. (2008). What does metalinguistic activity in learners' interaction during a collaborative L2 writing task look like? The Modern Language Journal, 92(4), 519-537.
Hayes, T., & Ge, X. (2008). The effects of computer-supported collaborative learning on students' writing performance. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 8th international conference on International conference for the learning sciences-Volume 1.
Hsieh, Y. C. (2017). A case study of the dynamics of scaffolding among ESL learners and online resources in collaborative learning. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 30(1-2), 115-132.
Hull, D. M., & Saxon, T. F. (2009). Negotiation of meaning and co-construction of knowledge: An experimental analysis of asynchronous online instruction. Computers & Education, 52(3), 624-639.
Ismael, A. a., Bakar, N. A., & Latif, H. (2016). Collaborative Blended Learning Writing Environment: Effects on EFL Students’ Writing Apprehension and Writing Performance. English Language Teaching, 9(6), 229-241.
Karami, M. (2013). Exploring effects of explicit vs. implicit teaching of collocations on the writing performance of Iranian EFL learners. International Journal of Language Learning and Applied Linguistics, 4(4), 197-215.
Kılıçkaya, F. (2015). Computer-based grammar instruction in an EFL context: improving the effectiveness of teaching adverbial clauses. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 28(4), 325-340.
Koh, J. H. L., Herring,S. C. & Hew, K. F. (2010). Project-based learning and student knowledge construction during asynchronous online discussion. The Internet and Higher Education, 13(4), 284-291.
Lai, C., & Zhao, Y. (2006). Noticing and text-based chat. Language Learning & Technology, 10(3), 102-120.
Lee, L. (2001). Online interaction: Negotiation of meaning and strategies used among learners of Spanish. ReCALL, 13(02), 232-244.
Lehtinen, E., Hakkarainen, K., Lipponen, L., Rahikainen, M., & Muukkonen, H. (1999). Computer supported collaborative learning: A review. The JHGI Giesbers reports on education, 10.
Li, M., & Kim, D. (2016). One wiki, two groups: Dynamic interactions across ESL collaborative writing tasks. Journal of second language writing, 31, 25-42.
Liao, H.-C. (2016). Enhancing the grammatical accuracy of EFL writing by using an AWE-assisted process approach. System, 62, 77-92.
Lin, O. P., & Maarof, N. (2013). Collaborative writing in summary writing: Student perceptions and problems. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 90, 599-606.
Lowry, P. B., Curtis, A., & Lowry, M. R. (2004). Building a taxonomy and nomenclature of collaborative writing to improve interdisciplinary research and practice. Journal of Business Communication, 41(1), 66-99.
Lu, X. (2010). Automatic analysis of syntactic complexity in second language writing. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 15(4), 474-496.
Lucas, E. M., Oliveira, T. C., Farias, K., & Alencar, P. S. (2017). CollabRDL: A Language to Coordinate Collaborative Reuse. Journal of Systems and Software.
Lyster, R. (2015). Using form-focused tasks to integrate language across the immersion curriculum. System, 54, 4-13.
McGrath, D. (2004). Strengthening collaborative work. Learning and Leading with Technology, 31(5), 30-33.
Manchon, R. M. (2011). Writing to learn the language: Issues in theory and research. Learning-to-write and writing-to-learn in an additional language, 61-84.
Marzban, A., & Mokhberi, M. (2012). The effect of focus on form instruction on intermediate EFL learners’ grammar learning in task-based language teaching. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 46, 5340-5344.
Mayo, M. d. P. G., & Ibarrola, A. L. (2015). Do children negotiate for meaning in task-based interaction? Evidence from CLIL and EFL settings. System, 54, 40-54.
Naghdipour, B. (2016). English writing instruction in Iran: Implications for second language writing curriculum and pedagogy. Journal of second language writing, 32, 81-87.
Nairn, K., Cameron, J., Anakin, M., Juntrasook, A., Wass, R., Sligo, J., & Morrison, C. (2015). Negotiating the challenge of collaborative writing: Learning from one writing group's mutiny. Higher Education Research & Development, 34(3), 596-608.
Nakahama, Y., Tyler, A., & Lier, L. (2001). Negotiation of meaning in conversational and information gap activities: A comparative discourse analysis. TESOL quarterly, 35(3), 377-405.
Nassaji, H., & Tian, J. (2010). Collaborative and individual output tasks and their effects on learning English phrasal verbs. Language teaching research, 14(4), 397-419.
Nejad, S. G., & Keshavarzi, A. (2015). The Effect of Cooperative Learning on Reading Comprehension and Reading Anxiety of Pre-University Students. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Research, 2(8), 169-180.
Nguyen, L. V. (2008). Computer mediated communication and foreign language education: Pedagogical features. International journal of instructional technology and distance learning, 5(12), 23-44.
Nobar, A., & Ahangari, S. (2012). The impact of computer-assisted language learning on Iranian EFL learners’ task-based listening skill and motivation. Journal of Academic and Applied Studies, 2(1), 39-61.
Oliver, R. (2000). Age differences in negotiation and feedback in classroom and pairwork. Language learning, 50(1), 119-151.
Oliver, R. (2002). The patterns of negotiation for meaning in child interactions. The Modern Language Journal, 86(1), 97-111.
Ortega, L. (2007). Meaningful L2 practice in foreign language classrooms: A cognitive-interactionist SLA perspective. Practice in a second language: Perspectives from applied linguistics and cognitive psychology, 180-207.
Orvis, K. L. (2008). Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning: Best Practices and Principles for Instructors: Best Practices and Principles for Instructors: IGI Global.
Orvis, K. L., & Lassiter, A. L. (2006). Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning. Teaching and learning with virtual teams, 158.
Pardo-Ballester, C., & Cabello, A. C. (2016). L2 Collaborative E-writing. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 228, 601-607.
Pica, T. (1994). Research on Negotiation: What Does It Reveal About Second‐Language Learning Conditions, Processes, and Outcomes? Language learning, 44(3), 493-527.
Pilotti, M., & Chodorow, M. (2009). Error detection/correction in collaborative writing. Reading and Writing, 22(3), 245-260.
Poole, A. (2005). The kinds of forms learners attend to during focus on form instruction: A description of an advanced ESL writing class. Asian EFL Journal, 7(3), 58-92.
Pourasghar, H., Abdolmanafi, S. J., & -Ronaki. (2015). Hypermedia and its Effect on EFL Learners’ Pronunciation Accuracy. International Journal of Educational Investigations, 2(7), 169-180.
Rabiee, A., Nazarian, Z., & Gharibshaeyan, R. (2013). An explanation for internet use obstacles concerning e-learning in Iran. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 14(3), 361-376.
Rahimpour, M., & Salimi, A. (2010). The impact of explicit instruction on foreign language learners’ performance. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2(2), 1740-1746.
Rajabi, P., & Dezhkam, E. (2014). The Effect of Explicit Grammar Instruction on Improving Writing Accuracy of Iranian EFL Learners. Journal of ELT and Applied Linguistics (JELTAL), 2(1).
Rezaei, S. (2011). Corrective feedback in task-based grammar instruction. Saarbrücken, Germany: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing.
Roblyer, M. D., & Wiencke, W. R. (2003). Design and use of a rubric to assess and encourage interactive qualities in distance courses. The American journal of distance education, 17(2), 77-98.
Rose, K. R. (2005). On the effects of instruction in second language pragmatics. System, 33(3), 385-399.
Sadeghi, K., & Dousti, M. (2014). The effect of length of exposure to computer-based vocabulary activities on young Iranian EFL learners' vocabulary gain. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 4(8), 1692.
Sadeghi, K., & Khezrlou, S. (2015). Language Learning Beyond the Classroom, David Nunan and Jack C. Richards. New York and Oxford: Routledge. Iranian Journal of Language Teaching Research, 3(2), 119-121.
Salehi, H. (2016). Impact of Explicit Vocabulary Instruction on Writing Achievement of Upper-Intermediate EFL Learners. pdf. International Education Studies.
Salimi, A., Bonyadi, A., & Asghari, A. (2014). The effect of focus on form on EFL learners' written task accuracy across different proficiency levels. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 4(4), 829.
Selwyn, N. (2016). Education and technology: Key issues and debates: Bloomsbury Publishing.
Shehadeh, A. (2011). Effects and student perceptions of collaborative writing in L2. Journal of second language writing, 20(4), 286-305.
Stahl, G., Koschmann, T., & Suthers, D. (2006). Computer-supported collaborative learning: An historical perspective. Cambridge handbook of the learning sciences, 2006, 409-426.
Stockwell, G. (2010). Effects of multimodality in computer-mediated communication tasks. Task-based language learning and teaching with technology, 83-104.
Storch, N. (2005). Collaborative writing: Product, process, and students’ reflections. Journal of second language writing, 14(3), 153-173.
Storch, N. (2008). Metatalk in a pair work activity: Level of engagement and implications for language development. Language awareness, 17(2), 95-114.
Storch, N. (2013). Collaborative writing in L2 classrooms (Vol. 31): Multilingual matters.
Strijbos, J.-W., & Fischer, F. (2007). Methodological challenges for collaborative learning research. Learning and Instruction, 17(4), 389-393.
Thorne, & Lantolf, J. (2006). Sociocultural theory and the genesis of second language development: Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Tudini, V. (2013). Form-focused social repertoires in an online language learning partnership. Journal of pragmatics, 50(1), 187-202.
van der Zwaard, R., & Bannink, A. (2014). Video call or chat? Negotiation of meaning and issues of face in telecollaboration. System, 44, 137-148.
VanPatten, B., Williams, J., Rott, S., & Overstreet, M. (2004). Form-meaning connections in second language acquisition: Routledge.
Warschauer, M. (2011). Emerging technologies for autonomous language learning. Reading.
Wilske, S. (2015). Form and meaning in dialog-based computer-assisted language learning. (Doktors der Philosophie), Universit ¨at des Saarlandes.
Worajittiphon, K. (2012). Negotiation for Meaning in Synchronous EFL Chat. Procedia Engineering, 32, 1157-1162.
Yanguas, Í. (2010). Oral computer-mediated interaction between L2 learners: It’s about time. Language Learning & Technology, 14(3), 72-93.
Yazdi-Amirkhiz, S. Y., Ajideh, P., & Leitner, G. (2016). The Influence of Collaboration on Individual Writing Quality: The Case of Iranian vs. Malaysian College Students. Journal of English Language Teaching and Learning, 8(17), 1-24.